Alankaar (अलंकार) (Figure of speech):
It is a beautiful coincidence that I get to talk about the ‘alankaar’ in my first post for this challenge. They have always intrigued me and inspired me to create beautiful effects with words in my poems. I will be sharing few of my creations during this challenge, old and new, and I hope you will keep looking for ‘alankaar’ in my posts. Each of my post will also feature a bonus word and a notable poet for the alphabet of the day.
Note: I have cited only the relevant lines from my poems as examples
to keep this post concise, you may follow the links provided to go to the original post/complete poem.
The concept: (अलंकार) Alankaar is a figure of speech which means ornaments or adornments. It is one of the basic concepts of Hindi grammar; essentially a bibelot used in Hindi language to enhance the beauty of a poem. The ‘alankaar’ may create a superlative effect by way of a word itself or enhance it indirectly with its meaning.
Most common (अलंकार) Alankaar that you might find in the Hindi poetry are:
- अनुप्रास अलंकार (Pronun:/Anu’praas/)(Meaning: Alliteration)
Explanation: When a consonant/sound is repeated several times (more than once) in succession in a sentence or a poem.
ख़्वाहिश भर से अंजाम मिला नहीं करते,
के हर ख़्वाब को परवान चढ़ाना पड़ता है ;
अंधेरे को कोसकर किसने क्या पाया है,
के अपना दीपक ख़ुद ही जलाना पड़ता है ||
Repeated use of ‘क’ is creating alliteration here. It is a beautiful composition from my archives and the following link will take you to there, hope you like it:-) :- https://doc2poet.wordpress.com/2015/10/12/spirituality2/
Here is another post commemorating alliteration where the first letter of each line is same: Click here
- यमक अलंकार (Pronunciation:/Ya’mak/) (Meaning: Homonym)–
Explanation: When a word is repeated more than once in a sentence but each time its meaning is different.
काल करे सो काल ही कर,
के आज भी तो कल (yesterday) का कल (tomorrow),
करते जाने की होड़ में, कहीं बीत न जाए ये पल ||
Here ‘कल’ is used twice with a different meaning each time.
Note– Repeated use of ‘क’ is also creating alliteration here.
This couplet is dedicated to the great Kabira and you can visit it here: https://doc2poet.wordpress.com/2015/09/19/kabira1/
- श्लेष अलंकार (Pronunciation:/Shh’le:sh/) (Meaning: Pun)–
Explanation: When a word is used only once but it has more than one meaning.
कभी जीत मिली, कभी सीख ,
कुछ मंज़िलें हैं, जो अभी पानी हैं;
कोई छूट गया, कोई साथ रहा,
के तस्वीरें कुछ धुँधली, तो कुछ जानी-पहचानी हैं;
‘तस्वीरें’ here has multiple meanings here ‘Pictures’ & ‘Memories’.
This link will take you to the original post:
- उपमा अलंकार (Pronunciation:/oop’maa/) (Meaning: Simile)–
Explanation: When a person or thing is compared with a similar but famous or well known person or thing.
ख़यालों ने उनके सताया है इस क़दर,
के राबता हो उनसे….तो पूछेंगे ज़रूर ;
तराशा है तुम्हें खुद उस ख़ुदा ने,
या हो तुम परी….या कोई हूर ||
Here the inamorata is being compared with a fairy/ nymph/genie to create a simile.This poem is very close to my heart and you can feel it too, just click here: https://doc2poet.wordpress.com/2015/08/27/dil1/
- रूपक अलंकार (Pronunciation:/Roo’pak/) (Meaning:Metaphor)–
Explanation: When a word is used for something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance.
उन्हें भूल पाना अब मुमकिन नहीं ,
के ये कोमल एहसास ही…साँसों का सहारा बन गया ;
साहिलों से नाता टूटे ज़माना हो चला,
के उफनते इस सागर में…ये तिनका ही किनारा बन गया ||
Here ‘सागर’ (meaning: sea) denotes ‘turbulent life’ and ‘तिनका’ (meaning: straw/ shred/ scrap) is used to bespeak ‘a succor, support, hope or a coast’ to create a metaphor.
This link will take you to the original post: https://doc2poet.wordpress.com/2015/10/12/loneliness1/
Amīr Khusrow (अमीर ख़ुसरौ):
He was a Sufi musician and poet born in 1253. His enduring fame in India rests on the riddles, quibbles and songs written by him. He was one of the pioneers of Persian and Hindi poetry, including ‘qawwali’ and ‘ghazals’ in India.
Some of his celebrated creations include:
(It is not only a classic but one of my favorite poem too)
चाप तिलक सब छीनी रे मोसे नैना मिलाइके,
चाप तिलक सब छीनी रे मोसे नैना मिलाइके,
प्रेम भाटी का माधवा पिलाइके,
मतवाली कर लीनी रे मोसे नैना मिलाइके,
गोरी गोरी बैयाँ, हरी हरी चूड़ियाँ ,
बैयाँ पकड़ धर लीनी रे मोसे नैना मिलाइके,
बलि बलि जाऊं में तोरे रंग रजवा,
अपनी सी कर लीनी रे मोसे नैना मिलाइके,
ख़ुसरौ निजाम के बलि बलि जाईए ,
मोहे सुहागन कीनी रे मोसे नैना मिलाइके,
चाप तिलक सब छीनी रे मोसे नैना मिलाइके ||
You’ve taken away my looks, my identity, by just a glance.
By making me drink the wine of love-potion,
You’ve intoxicated me by just a glance;
My fair, delicate wrists with green bangles in them,
Have been held tightly by you with just a glance.
I give my life to you, Oh my cloth-dyer,
You’ve dyed me in yourself, by just a glance.
I give my whole life to you Oh, Nijam,
You’ve made me your bride, by just a glance.
Here is another famous gem from Amir Khusrow’s collection:
ख़ुसरो दरिया प्रेम का, उल्टी वा की धार,
जो उतरा सो डूब गया, जो डूबा सो पार ||
Khusrow, the river of love runs in strange directions.
One who jumps into it drowns, and one who drowns, gets across.
Meaning– A divine creative impulse or poetic inspiration.
If you are reading this, thank you for stopping by. This post is first in a series of 26 posts that I will be writing as part of the A to Z challenge for April 2016. My theme for the challenge would be A to Z of poetry. Don’t feel shy to leave your feedback and visit again:-)